Download 1177 B.C. : the year civilization collapsed by Eric H. Cline PDF

By Eric H. Cline

In 1177 B.C., marauding teams identified simply because the "Sea Peoples" invaded Egypt. The pharaoh's military and military controlled to defeat them, however the victory so weakened Egypt that it quickly slid into decline, as did many of the surrounding civilizations. After centuries of brilliance, the civilized international of the Bronze Age got here to an abrupt and cataclysmic finish. Kingdoms fell like dominoes over the process quite a few many years. not more Minoans or Mycenaeans. not more Trojans, Hittites, or Babylonians. The thriving economic system and cultures of the overdue moment millennium B.C., which had stretched from Greece to Egypt and Mesopotamia, all of sudden ceased to exist, in addition to writing structures, know-how, and huge structure. however the Sea Peoples by myself couldn't have prompted such frequent breakdown. How did it happen?

In this significant new account of the motives of this "First darkish Ages," Eric Cline tells the gripping tale of ways the tip used to be led to by way of a number of interconnected mess ups, starting from invasion and insurrection to earthquakes, drought, and the slicing of foreign alternate routes. Bringing to lifestyles the colourful multicultural international of those nice civilizations, he attracts a sweeping landscape of the empires and globalized peoples of the past due Bronze Age and indicates that it was once their very interdependence that hastened their dramatic cave in and ushered in a dismal age that lasted centuries.

A compelling mixture of narrative and the most recent scholarship, 1177 B.C. sheds new gentle at the advanced ties that gave upward push to, and finally destroyed, the flourishing civilizations of the overdue Bronze Age--and that set the degree for the emergence of classical Greece.

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16 The sentences are found within the context of a long inscription that is otherwise concerned with Merneptah’s ongoing battles with the Libyans, located just to the west of Egypt proper. It is the Libyans and the Sea Peoples who occupied most of Merneptah’s attention during this year, rather than the Israelites. ”18 In a longer inscription found at Karnak (modern-­day Luxor), we are given additional details about this earlier wave of incursions by the Sea Peoples. The names of the individual groups are included: [Beginning of the victory that his majesty achieved in the land of Libya] Eqwesh, Teresh, Lukka, Shardana, Shekelesh, Northerners coming from all lands.

However, Mitanni did not remain vanquished for long. Within fifteen or twenty years, the Mitannian king Saushtatar began greatly expanding the kingdom once again. 48 In less than a century, by the time of Pharaoh Amenhotep III in the mid-­fourteenth century BC, relations between Egypt and Mitanni were so cordial that Amenhotep married not one but two ­Mitannian princesses. Mitanni, Assyria, Egyptians. The world was already growing more interconnected, even if sometimes only in war. The Assuwa Rebellion in Anatolia It is intriguing that Thutmose III was in contact, and perhaps involved in active commercial exchange, with distant areas, including areas located to the north and west of Egypt.

We do not know for certain; however, it is possible that Apophis and Seknenre fought each other, whether or not it was over hippopotami. We also have an inscription left to us by the pharaoh Kamose, last king of the Seventeenth Dynasty of Egypt. At the time, Kamose was Of Arms and the Man • • • 17 ruling from his home in Thebes, in Upper Egypt.  .  .  . I passed the night in my ship, my heart happy; and when day dawned I was upon him as if it were a hawk. When breakfast time came, I overthrew him having destroyed his walls and slaughtered his people, and made his wife descend to the riverbank.

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