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By John G. Webster (Editor)

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Since the onset of the industrial revolution in the middle of the eighteenth century, global industrial output and productivity have risen spectacularly. Data offered by various researchers indicate that global industrial output has risen by approximately a factor of 100 since the 1750s. 5% per year. 3% per year. Taking the United Kingdom as an example, the average number of hours worked in a lifetime in 1956 was estimated to be about 150,000 for men and about 63,000 for women. In 1981 it was estimated to be about 88,000 for men and 40,000 for women, signifying a 40% drop for men and 37% for women (4).

In 1980, UNEP, in conjunction with the World Conservation ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF TECHNOLOGY 11 12 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF TECHNOLOGY Fig. 5. Today, humans realize that the environment is fragile and can no longer be used in the traditional way. Therefore, many organizations at various levels are looking into environmental problems and means of sustainable development. Union (IUCN) and the World Wildlife Fund (WWF), produced a World Conservation Strategy that contained key features for sustainable development.

In the forest land, there was estimated to be 34 million km2 of native tree species and plantation forests, and the remaining 17 million km2 consisted of other woody vegetation such as open woodland, scrubland, and bushland. Increase in land use and deforestation has had significant effects on the environment through altered ecosystems, destroyed wildlife habitats, changed regional climates, and the release of an estimated 150 billion tons of carbon into the atmosphere. The FAO defines deforestation as the conversion of forest to other uses such as cropland.

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