By Ian D. Whyte
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AD400. By the C1AD village societies based on irrigation of agriculture had appeared and population was rising steadily. Most of their homeland lay at 1,200–2,400 m; temperature fell with height but rain increased. Corn could grow at up to 2,130 m but needed irrigation below 1,700 m. Moisture came from the Paciﬁc and Gulf of Mexico, both strongly inﬂuenced by ENSO cycles. Summer rain between July and September came from both areas, winter rain from the Paciﬁc from December to March. There were three types of agriculture: dryland farming at higher elevations where rainfall was greater (as with the Mogollon and Mesa Verde peoples), in canyon bottoms where the water table was close to the surface (Mimbre and Pueblo 2, Chaco Canyon), and using irrigation, especially the Hohokam who developed the most extensive systems in America outside Peru based on hundreds of km of secondary canals fed from main ones 18 km long, 5 m deep and 30 m wide.
The mouth of the Amstel, where the street called the Damrak now runs, became a safe harbour. Until the C16 the town remained small but then expanded outwards in a series of concentric semi-circular canals with an outer line of defences. Amsterdam developed as a burgher city with rows of tall narrowfronted canalside houses built to a similar general style but each one individual in detail. Like Venice these were built on wooden piles driven 30 Amsterdam | Anasazi into the mud; subsidence has made some of the canal houses lean.
Barley and wheat are thought by some specialists to have been introduced from SW Asia. 1300BC and barley even later; agriculture was based on millet and dryland rice, the former the staple, the latter a luxury. 6000BC. agricultural origins: Europe A major controversy has been whether the diffusion of agriculture through Europe from the Near E was due to a spread of ideas or people. G. Childe (1968) but more recent research suggests a complex picture combining the two elements in varying degrees at different times and places.