By Martín Abadi, Luca Cardelli
Procedural languages are usually good understood and their formal foundations forged within the different types of a number of lambda-calculi. For object-oriented languages but the state of affairs isn't really as straight forward. during this booklet the authors suggest and strengthen a special strategy by means of constructing item calculi during which items are handled as primitives. utilizing item calculi, the authors may be able to clarify either the semantics of items and their typing ideas and exhibit the way to strengthen the entire most vital recommendations of object-oriented programming languages: self, dynamic dispatch, sessions, inheritance, secure and personal tools, prototyping, subtyping, covariance and contravariance, and technique specialization. Many researchers and graduate scholars will locate this a huge improvement of the underpinnings of object-oriented programming.
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Additional resources for A theory of Objects
A similar reduction of classes to objects will appear in our formal treatment of object calculi. 2 Prototypes and Clones As we have just seen, procedures may be used for generating objects. However, it may be difficult or inconvenient to anticipate all the possible ways in which objects should be parameterized. The so-called prototype-based languages adopt a different approach to object generation. Instead of parameterizing objects beforehand, they generate stock objects from prototypical objects, and customize the stock objects later [32, 79).
Another approach has emerged that increases the potential for inheritance by further separating subtyping from subclassing. This approach abandons completely the notion that subclassing implies subtyping (property (4)), and is known under the name inheritance-is-not-subtyping [52). elf so as to allow inheritance of methods with arguments of type Self; these methods arise naturally in realistic examples. The price paid for this added flexibility in inheritance is decreased flexibility in subsumption.
For soundness, the result of m must be shown to have type Self, and not just type InstanceTypeOfic). When c' is declared as a subclass of c, the result type of m is still taken to be Self. However, Self is then regarded as a subtype of InstanceTypeOfic'). Thus Self, as the result type of a method, is automatically specialized on subclassing. There are no drawbacks to extending classical class-based languages with Self in covariant positions, for example as the result type of methods. This extension increases expressive power and prevents loss of type information at no cost other than properly keeping track of the type of self.