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By D. M. Armstrong

During this very important learn D. M. Armstrong deals a complete approach of analytical metaphysics that synthesizes but additionally develops his pondering during the last two decades. Armstrong's research, which recognizes the "logical atomism" of Russell and Wittgenstein, makes proof (or states of affairs, because the writer calls them) the basic ingredients of the area, reading houses, kinfolk, numbers, periods, probability and necessity, inclinations, reasons and legislation. it's going to attract a large readership in analytical philosophy.

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30. 10 Doris, Lack of Character, p. 54. Kantian Moral Pessimism 37 Doris’s commitment to moral optimism. Kant can respond that the data, instead of requiring revision to morals, simply require abandoning even mode­rate optimism. Kant agrees with Doris/Harman that experiments show widespread lack of stable character traits. Yet, for Kant this lack results from widespread moral failing. Lack of character is not something to build a moral theory around, but a problem to combat in order to bring about moral reform.

Unfortunately for Doris and Harman, this argument against virtue ethics depends for its plausibility upon moral optimism, at least to the extent of denying that most people are morally evil. ”8 This point can be strengthened given Kant’s conception of moral character. Kant identifies “good character” with the “good will” (VA 5 See Doris, Lack of Character; and J. M. Darley and C. D. Batson, “From Jerusalem to Jericho: A Study of Situational and Dispositional Variables in Helping Behavior,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 27 (1973), 100–8.

The world “as it is” presents itself to the theoretical use of reason as the “appearance” of a nature that in its causal dynamism works, at best, indifferently to the ends and purposes that the practical use of reason proposes as befitting the dignity of our finite human freedom. Neiman notes: It would be easy to acknowledge that not controlling the natural world is part of being human, were it not for the fact that things go wrong. , p. 318; see also p. , pp. 80–1. 24 Even more important for Kant’s account of evil and for the anthropology of finite freedom that forms its context, is the fact that whatever moral purposes we may think are necessary for our making sense of the world are not features of the world but rather a demand that our reason brings to the world.

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