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D. S. Greenberg, The Politics of Pure Science, New York: New American Library, 1967; K. Kofmehl, “COSEPUP, Congress and Scientific Advice,” 28: (1966), pp. 100–120. 19. B. L. Smith and J. Karlesky, The State of Academic Science, Volumes I and II, New York: Change Magazine Press, 1977–78. 20. R. M. Rosenzweig, with B. Turlington, The Research Universities and Their Patrons, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1982. 21. Ibid; Research Universities and the National Interest: A Report of Fifteen University Presidents.

With these changes the proportion of basic research in the university totals rose from 62 percent to 70 percent. The growth of research funds was greatest in the life sciences (+114 percent), reflecting the prosperity of NIH and private funders. The physical sciences also did well (+76 percent), as the AEC expanded its on-campus support. Engineering (+6 percent) reflected the armed services' preference for FFRDCs. These years also witnessed a dramatic improvement in university research capacity, particularly at the major private institutions.

There was a fair degree of pluralism in the postwar research economy if one took into account the several federal patrons; however, the funding possibilities for individual fields were often quite circumscribed. The postwar statesmen of science—Bush, Conant, and Karl Compton, among others—had been concerned to preserve the pluralism of American university research by maintaining viable private alternatives to federal funding. In the natural sciences, though, just what they had feared came to pass.

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