By Albert G. MacKey 33*, William J. Hughan 32*, Edward L. Hawkins 30*
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Degas’s more traditional technique eschewed the affectation of spontaneity, but he highlighted his own creative processes through arresting vantage points and orchestrated compositions, to which he found parallels in other art spectacles, most famously, the ballet. To emphasize the idea that even naturalism in art is a deliberate produc- E U R O P E 1 7 8 9 TO 1 9 1 4 PAINTING tion rather than mechanical copying, Degas’s Musicians in the Orchestra (c. 1870, reworked c. 1874–1876) shows the ballerinas taking bows before very broadly brushed theater flats, after the players in the foreground have completed their accompaniment.
After 1789 he applied these artistic principles to repre- 1702 sentations of Revolutionary events and heroes, such as Marat Assassinated (1793). At the same time, David was elected from the radical Jacobin party to the new legislature, which abolished the French Academy and its privileges. He organized public celebrations, using motifs from antiquity to suggest that the new regime had given rebirth to its noble ideals. The neoclassicism (literally new/renewed classicism), for which David’s tautly linear, stripped-down, and highly finished style became the model, used significant elements of realism to create its powerful effects.
BIBLIOGRAPHY Primary Sources Palacky´, Frantisˇek. ’’ In Spisy drobne´, edited by Bohusˇ Rieger. Prague . Vol. 1, 209–267. ———. ‘‘Psanı´ do Frankfurta dne 11. ’’ In Spisy drobne´, edited by Bohusˇ Rieger. Prague . Vol. 1, 16–22. Secondary Sources Korˇalka, Jirˇ´ı. Frantisˇek Palacky´, 1798–1876: Zˇivotopis. Prague, 1998. Morava, Georg J. Franz Palacky´: Eine fru ¨ he Vision von Mitteleuropa. Vienna, 1990. Pech, Stanley Z. The Czech Revolution of 1848. , 1969. Zacek, Joseph Frederick.